Important information about
What is Hypochlorous Acid?
Hypochlorous Acid is a free chlorine molecule with the chemical structure HOCl. It is the dominant free chlorine species in chlorine solutions that have a slightly acidic to neutral pH. HOCl is a much more powerful oxidant than sodium hypochlorite (or chlorine bleach).
Is Hypochlorous Acid Effective at Biofilm Removal?
Yes, Hypochlorous Acid is very effective at removing biofilm and preventing formation.
Is Hypochlorous Acid natural?
Is Hypochlorous Acid Natural?
Hypochlorous Acid is produced naturally by the white blood cells of all mammals. It is used by white blood cells to kill invading microbial pathogens.
How Does it Kill Pathogens?
Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl) is a neutrally charged molecule. Bacteria have negatively charged cell walls. Just like magnets, molecules with the same charge will repel each other. For example, the negatively charged molecule of bleach (OCI-) is repelled by bacterial cell walls, which is not the case with HOCl, which is neutrally charged. HOCl quickly penetrates bacterial cell walls. HOCl either oxidizes the cell walls killing the bacteria, or enters through the cell walls and destroys the bacteria's vital components.
Are There Any Disadvantages?
Unlike many other sanitation chemicals, Hypochlorous Acid does not have a lasting antimicrobial effect. In other words, once it lands on a surface, it reacts with any germs or organic matter on that surface and then immediately deactivates. It is good because it allows for sanitation without requiring a post-rinse. After all, no toxic chemicals are left behind. Reapplication is required periodically to maintain high-level disinfection.
How is Hypochlorous Acid Made?
Hypochlorous Acid is made through a process called electrolysis. Bypassing a sodium chloride solution (NaCl) through an electrolysis cell containing an anode and a cathode, electrolyzed water is generated. There are two commonly used electrolysis methods for generating Hypochlorous Acid, membrane cell electrolysis, and single-cell electrolysis. Membrane cell electrolysis converts a saltwater brine into two solutions, a strongly Acidic anolyte of Hypochlorous Acid and a strongly alkaline catholyte of sodium hydroxide. Single-cell electrolysis converts a saltwater brine into one solution, a slightly Acidic- to-neutral anolyte of Hypochlorous Acid.
Is Hypochlorous Acid Stable?
Stability is dependent on the process used to generate the Hypochlorous Acid, the solution can be very stable. Membrane cell electrolysis generates two streams with opposing oxidation-reduction potentials and opposite pH. This is done by forcing positively charged sodium ions across a membrane toward the cathode side. On the anode side, a very high concentration of anolyte is generated that is strongly Acidic (- pH 3). Generating Hypochlorous Acid by this method is not as stable as that generated by single-cell technology. Single-cell technology uses an Acidified brine, and only one stream of the solution is generated in the pH range of 5-7. When generating Hypochlorous Acid through a single cell, no high pressures are used, and no ions are forced across a membrane. The Hypochlorous Acid generated is stable, not seeking a new equilibrium like the anolyte generated from membrane cell systems.
What is the Shelf Life of Hypochlorous Acid?
The shelf-life is 18 months if stored in a closed container protected from the oxygen in the air. Containers that block out UV light may have a small effect on extending shelf-life.
How is Hypochlorous Acid Deactivated?
The disinfection process itself deactivates NaturaeSan hence it is inherently safe and warrants a no-rinse formulation classification. Hypochlorous Acid is a strong oxidant that is seeking to steal electrons from another molecule. Synthetic or inanimate surfaces are challenging to steal electrons from; however, organic matter, microbial pathogens, or oxygen in the air can easily steal electrons. Once Hypochlorous Acid steals an electron, it either binds to that molecule and forms a new molecule, reverts to hypochlorite, or turns back into saline.
How Effective is Hypochlorous Acid at Killing
Bacteria and Viruses?
Chlorine is an extremely effective disinfectant for inactivating bacteria and viruses. A study conducted during the 1940s investigated the inactivation levels as a function of time for E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, and Shigella dysenteriae (Butterfield et al., 1943). Study results indicated that HOCl is more effective than OCI- (aka. chlorine bleach) for the inactivation of these bacteria. These results have been confirmed by several researchers that concluded that HOCl is 70 to 80 times more effective than OCI- for inactivating bacteria (Culp/Wesner/Culp, 1986). Since 1986, there have been hundreds of publications confirming the superiority of HOCl over OCI-. HOCl may be more effective than OCI- for two reasons; this first is because it holds a neutral charge and, therefore, can easily penetrate the negatively charged cell walls of bacteria. The second reason is that HOCl has a much higher oxidation potential than OCI-. NaturaeSan™ is up to 300 times more effective than chlorine at killing bacteria and viruses. HOCl is now confirmed to kill SARS 2 and COVID-19.
How is the Concentration of Hypochlorous Acid Measured?
Hypochlorous Acid is measured with the same standard test strips that measure free chlorine in a pool. The test strips will turn a different purple shade to indicate the concentration between 10 and 200 ppm. For higher concentrations, the solution being tested can be diluted. (Example: A 1000 ppm solution could be diluted at a 1:10 ratio. A test strip would then read 100 ppm indicating the original solution was 1000 ppm.)
What Concentration of Hypochlorous Acid Should be Used?
The concentration that should be used depends on the application. Sanitizing food such as fruits & vegetables and fish & seafood is highly effective at 20-30 ppm however the FDA allows concentrations to be used as high as 60 ppm without requiring a post rinse. Sanitizing food contact surfaces is also effective at 20-30 ppm however concentrations as high as 200 ppm are allowed by the FDA. Water disinfection is effective at 1-2 ppm; however, the EPA allows up to 4 ppm. When deciding what concentration to use, it is best to refer to the research or manufacturers' recommendations. Over 300 research articles have been published covering nearly every application. NaturaeSan™ is supplied at 500 ppm concentration allowing efficient client dilution for many applications, representing excellent value for money.
Hypochlorous Acid Research (including Covid-19)
Over 300 research articles have been published covering nearly every application.
Is Hypochlorous Acid effective against Listeria, Salmonella, E Coli, MRSA, C Diff, and Norovirus?
Yes, most research on Hypochlorous Acid has been done on the microbial pathogens Listeria, Salmonella, and E.coli. Hypochlorous Acid is highly effective against MRSA. Since Clostridium species are difficult to culture in the lab, Bacillus species, which are also spore-forming bacteria and more challenging to kill, are used as test pathogens. Hypochlorous Acid is effective against Norovirus.
Is Hypochlorous Acid Safe?
Hypochlorous Acid is non-toxic and non-hazardous. Unlike most chemical sanitizers, Hypochlorous Acid is non-irritant to eyes, skin, and the respiratory tract. Even if it were ingested by accident, it causes no harm.
Does Hypochlorous Acid Change the Taste or Smell of Food?
Hypochlorous Acid does not change the taste or smell of food.
Is Hypochlorous Acid Food & Pet Safe?
Yes, Hypochlorous Acid is 100% safe and non-irritant. It is safe enough to use personal items such as toothbrushes, baby pacifiers, and toys for pets.
How Safe is Hypochlorous Acid on Material and Fabrics?
Hypochlorous Acid is much less aggressive on fabrics than peroxide or chlorine bleach. Although Hypochlorous Acid usually does not cause bleaching or discoloration, some lower quality dyes may bleed when exposed to Hypochlorous Acid.
Can Hypochlorous Acid Cause Corrosion?
Hypochlorous Acid is a powerful oxidant and can cause corrosion if left exposed for extended periods to brass, copper, iron, or lower quality steel. Stainless steel can corrode if submersed in high concentrations of Hypochlorous Acid (>200 ppm) for extended periods.
It is Ready to Use
The "Ready to Use" Hypochlorous Acid from NaturaeSan will always be at 125-ppm, which is more than enough to 99.999% remove bacteria, germs, and viruses this includes COVID-19. At 125-ppm, it is safe enough for humans and animals.
The Concentrate Rate
At 500-ppm, which is the concentrate rate, NaturaeSan is within a safe range. With this concentrated solution, it is a simple matter of dilution. When the 500-ppm concentrate is diluted with pure water at the ratio of 4:1 (800 liters water and 200 liters concentrate), the resultant ppm is whatever the concentration is. In this case, 500 ppm, divided by 4. In other words, it is 500/4 = 125. This does not alter the efficacy of NaturaeSan™ as there are other factors in the formulation that are not affected by dilution, such as pH, ORP, and FAC.
Free Available Chlorine (FAC)
NaturaeSan is formulated to give the maximum Free Available Chlorine (FAC) at a pH that is the most effective pathogen killer.